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Table 1 Radiology findings and interpretation of cases and controls

From: Radiographic features in investigated for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia: a nested case-control study

  Univariable Multivariable
X-ray Finding (%) Cases (N = 69) Controls (N = 270) P-Value Odds Ratio
(95% CI)
Increased interstitial markings 33 (47.8) 50 (18.5) 0.0001 2.9 (1.6–5.1)
Pleural Effusion 13 (18.8) 72 (26.7) 0.18
Airspace Disease 12 (17.4) 70 (25.9) 0.14
Atelectasis 10 (14.3) 44 (16.3) 0.68
Consolidation 8 (11.6) 43 (15.9) 0.37
Ground glass infiltrate 8 (11.6) 12 (4.4) 0.02
Reticulo-nodular opacities 7 (10.1) 30 (11.1) 0.82
Pulmonary edema 6 (8.7) 37 (13.7) 0.26
Normal 1 (1.4) 14 (5.2) 0.18
Radiologist PCP Possible/Likely 12 (17.4) 12 (4.4) 0.0001 4.5 (1.8–10.9)
CT Finding (%) Cases (N = 64) Controls (N = 231) P-Value Odds Ratio
(95% CI)
Ground glass opacity 61 (95.3) 154 (66.7) 0.0001 3.3 (1.2–9.1)
Interstitial markings 30 (46.9) 39 (16.8) 0.0001 4.3 (2.2–8.2)
Adenopathy 30 (46.9) 91 (39.2) 0.27
Septal thickening 21 (32.8) 69 (29.7) 0.64
Consolidation 17 (26.6) 65 (28) 0.82
Pleural Effusion 16 (25) 97 (41.8) 0.01
Nodular findings 15 (23.4) 104 (45) 0.0001
Emphysema/bullae 12 (18.8) 31 (13.4) 0.28
Linear-reticular opacities 5 (7.8) 1 (0.4) 0.0001
Cavitary lesion 5 (7.8) 7 (3) 0.09
Cystic changes 3 (4.7) 8 (3.4) 0.64
Mass lesion 1 (1.6) 3 (1.3) 0.87
Pulmonary embolism 1 (1.6) 3 (1.3) 0.87
Airspace disease 0 (0) 17 (7.3) 0.03
Pneumomediastinum 0 (0) 5 (2.2) 0.24
Crazy paving 0 (0) 7 (3) 0.16
Small airway thickening 0 (0) 5 (2.2) 0.24
Pneumothorax 0 (0) 2 (0.9) 0.46
Honeycombing 0 (0) 1 (0.4) 0.6
Radiologist - PCP Possible 21 (32.8) 50 (21.6) 0.06 2.0 (1.0–4.1)
Radiologist - PCP Likely 16 (25) 8 (3.4) 0.0001 9.3 (3.4–25.3)
  1. Sorted by descending prevalence in PCP. Data is expressed as the number and percentage of total reports in which these findings appeared in. Ground glass infiltrates or opacities refers to a nonspecific finding on computed tomography (CT) scans wherein there is partial filling of air spaces in the lungs, as well as interstitial thickening or partial collapse of lung alveoli. May be seen diffusely in the lung; “ground glass” indicating 1–2 mm. Reticulonodular opacities or linear-reticular opacities refers to overlaying of reticular shadows (irregular linear opacities) and this can also be seen in the presence of pulmonary nodules. Crazy paving refers to the appearance of ground-glass opacities with superimposed inter and intralobular septal thickening and intralobular septal thickening. Honeycombing is seen with widespread fibrosis; small cystic spaces are observed with irregularly thickened walls made up of fibrous tissue
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