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  1. A lower level of consciousness is a common presentation in critical care, with many different causes and contributory factors, of which more than one may be present concurrently.

    Authors: Chung Li, Ming-Yieh Peng, Chia-Hui Chang, Yuan-Yu Hsu, Min-Shiau Hsieh, Shinn-Kuang Lin, Yi-Hsin Lee and Mei-Chen Yang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:763

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  2. Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is commonly associated with outcomes like recurrence and readmission. The effect of social determinants of health, such as ‘neighborhood’ socioeconomic disadvantage, on a ...

    Authors: Elizabeth Scaria, W. Ryan Powell, Jen Birstler, Oguzhan Alagoz, Daniel Shirley, Amy J. H. Kind and Nasia Safdar

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:762

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Device-associated health care-associated infections (DA-HAIs) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients constitute a major therapeutic issue complicating the regular hospitalisation process and having influence on...

    Authors: Wieslawa Duszynska, Victor Daniel Rosenthal, Aleksander Szczesny, Katarzyna Zajaczkowska, Michal Fulek and Jacek Tomaszewski

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:761

    Content type: Research article

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  4. A more stringent QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) conversion (from negative to positive) definition has been proposed to allow more definite detection of recent tuberculosis (TB) infection. We explored altern...

    Authors: Rosa Sloot, Kwame Shanaube, Mareli Claassens, Lily Telisinghe, Ab Schaap, Peter Godfrey-Faussett, Helen Ayles and Sian Floyd

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:760

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination by 2030, as targeted by the World Health Organization (WHO), requires that 90% of people with chronic infection be diagnosed and 80% treated. We estimated the cascade of car...

    Authors: Cécile Brouard, Josiane Pillonel, Marjorie Boussac, Victor de Lédinghen, Antoine Rachas, Christine Silvain, Nathalie Lydié, Stéphane Chevaliez, Corinne Pioche, Julien Durand, Florence Lot and Elisabeth Delarocque-Astagneau

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:759

    Content type: Research article

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  6. HIV infection exacerbates the prognosis of HCV infection, with a faster progression of hepatitis. Hepatic fibrosis is the major disruption of the hepatic tissue architecture characterized by anarchic depositio...

    Authors: Rodolphe Dobseu, Aubin Nanfack, Mathurin Kowo, Georgia Ambada, Rachel Kamgaing, Collins Chenwi, Nadine Fainguem, Aude Ka’e, Eric Ngangoum, Samuel Sosso, Clergé Tchiegang and Alexis Ndjolo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:758

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Individuals that work and sleep in remote forest and farm locations in the Greater Mekong Subregion continue to remain at high risk of both acquiring and transmitting malaria. These difficult-to-access populat...

    Authors: Sara E. Canavati, Gerard C. Kelly, Cesia E. Quintero, Thuan Huu Vo, Long Khanh Tran, Thang Duc Ngo, Duong Thanh Tran, Kimberly A. Edgel and Nicholas J. Martin

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:757

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) dramatically increases the risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB). Several studies have indicated that co-infection with TB increases the risk of HIV ...

    Authors: Vivek Gopalakrishnan, Eliezer Bose, Usha Nair, Yuwei Cheng and Musie Ghebremichael

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:756

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Saksenaea species (spp.) are uncommon causes of mucormycosis but are emerging pathogens mostly associated with trauma and soil contamination often in immunocompetent hosts. Due to lack of sporulation in the labor...

    Authors: N. Davidson, K. Campbell, F. Foroughi, V. Tayal, S. Lynar, L. C. Crawford, S. E. Kidd, R. Baird, J. Davies and E. M. Meumann

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:755

    Content type: Case report

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  10. Herpes esophagitis is uncommon disease caused by Herpes simplex virus (HSV). While the disease most often occurs in immunocompromised patients, including post-chemotherapy, immunosuppression with organ transpl...

    Authors: Nabil Antaki, Ziad Aljarad, Howayda Dabbas, Walid Haddad, M. Amin Akil and Ahmad Sankari Tarabishi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:754

    Content type: Case report

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  11. Safety of live vaccines in patients treated with immunosuppressive therapies is not well known, resulting in contradictory vaccination recommendations. We describe here the first case of vaccine-associated mea...

    Authors: Alix Miauton, Rainer Tan, Vasiliki Pantazou, Renaud Du Pasquier and Blaise Genton

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:753

    Content type: Case report

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  12. Molecular epidemiological studies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) are the core of current research to find out the association of the M. tuberculosis genotypes with its outbreak and transmission. The high pre...

    Authors: Anamika Gupta, Pallavi Sinha, Vijay Nema, Pramod K. Gupta, Pampi Chakraborty, Savita Kulkarni, Nalin Rastogi and Shampa Anupurba

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:752

    Content type: Research article

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  13. HIV is a major public health issue, especially in developing countries. It is important to track and design successful intervention programs to explore the spatial pattern, distribution, and associated factors...

    Authors: Bayuh Asmamaw Hailu, Fentaw Tadese, Getahun Gebre Bogale, Asressie Molla, Birhan Asmame Miheretu and Joseph Beyene

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:751

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Mapping the genetic diversity of MTBC in high TB burden country like Ethiopia is important to understand principles of the disease transmi...

    Authors: Biniam Wondale, Kwon Keehwan, Girmay Medhin, Takele Teklu, Temesgen Mohammed, Samuel Tolosa, Aboma Zewude, Friehiwot Amsalu, Rembert Pieper and Gobena Ameni

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:750

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Two months after the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China, tens of thousands of hospitalized patients had recovered, and little is known about the follow-up of the recovered patients.

    Authors: Tie-Jun Shui, Chao Li, Hong-bing Liu, Xiaohua Chen and Bi-ke Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:749

    Content type: Research article

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  16. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Andrea Gramegna, Giovanni Sotgiu, Marta Di Pasquale, Dejan Radovanovic, Silvia Terraneo, Luis F. Reyes, Ester Vendrell, Joao Neves, Francesco Menzella, Francesco Blasi, Stefano Aliberti and Marcos I. Restrepo

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:748

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2018 18:677

  17. Sudden exacerbations and respiratory failure are major causes of death in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) pneumonia, but indicators for the prediction and treatment of severe patients a...

    Authors: Yi Wang, Lin Yao, Jian-Ping Zhang, Pei-Jun Tang, Zhi-Jian Ye, Xing-Hua Shen, Jun-Chi Xu, Mei-Ying Wu and Xin Yu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:747

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Effective active case finding (ACF) activities are essential for early identification of new cases of active tuberculosis (TB) and latent TB infection (LTBI). Accurate diagnostics as well as the ability to ide...

    Authors: Caroline Corbett, Aizat Kulzhabaeva, Tatjana Toichkina, Gulmira Kalmambetova, Sevim Ahmedov, Uladzimir Antonenka, Altyn Iskakova, Dilorom Kosimova, Dasha Migunov, Bakyt Myrzaliev, Evgeni Sahalchyk, Nagira Umetalieva, Monica Vogel, Abdylat Kadyrov and Harald Hoffmann

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:746

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Workers and residents in Care Homes are considered at special risk for the acquisition of SARS-CoV-2 infection, due to the infectivity and high mortality rate in the case of residents, compared to other contai...

    Authors: Jorge Julio Cabrera Alvargonzalez, Sonia Rey Cao, Sonia Pérez Castro, Lucía Martinez Lamas, Olaia Cores Calvo, Julio Torres Piñon, Jacobo Porteiro Fresco, Julio Garcia Comesaña and Benito Regueiro Garcia

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:745

    Content type: Research article

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  20. The triple burden of COVID-19, tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus is one of the major global health challenges of the twenty-first century. In high burden HIV/TB countries, the spread of COVID-19 am...

    Authors: Jacques L. Tamuzi, Birhanu T. Ayele, Constance S. Shumba, Olatunji O. Adetokunboh, Jeannine Uwimana-Nicol, Zelalem T. Haile, Joseph Inugu and Peter S. Nyasulu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:744

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Chagas disease is a zoonotic infection caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which affects an estimated 8–11 million people globally. Chagas disease is almost always associated with poverty in rural areas and...

    Authors: Paula Stigler Granados, Gerardo J. Pacheco, Evangelina Núñez Patlán, Jose Betancourt and Lawrence Fulton

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:743

    Content type: Research article

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  22. The surge of methamphetamine use has been a complicating factor compounding the steeply increasing number of drug overdose deaths in the U.S. Infection from blood-borne viruses including hepatitis B virus (HBV...

    Authors: Yilin Cai, Zheng Dai, Sijin Wen and Ruchi Bhandari

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:742

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Cholera remains a major global health challenge. Uvira, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), has had endemic cholera since the 1970’s and has been implicated as a possible point of origin for nationa...

    Authors: Camille Williams, Oliver Cumming, Lynn Grignard, Baron Bashige Rumedeka, Jaime Mufitini Saidi, Daniel Grint, Chris Drakeley and Aurelie Jeandron

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:741

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  24. From 2016, the Government of India introduced the oral rotavirus vaccine into the national immunization schedule. Currently, two indigenously developed vaccines (ROTAVAC, Bharat Biotech; ROTASIIL, Serum Instit...

    Authors: Sidhartha Giri, C. P. Girish Kumar, Shainey Alokit Khakha, Mamta Chawla-Sarkar, Varanasi Gopalkrishna, Shobha D. Chitambar, Pratima Ray, S. Venkatasubramanian, Biswa Jyoti Borkakoty, Subarna Roy, Jyothi Bhat, Bhagirathi Dwibedi, Pradeep Das, Vijayachari Paluru, Sasirekha Ramani, Sudhir Babji…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:740

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Invasive infections with Candida krusei are uncommon and rarely complicated by spondylitis. Previous described cases were solely treated with antimycotic therapy, despite guidelines recommending surgical interven...

    Authors: Audrey J. C. Overgaauw, David C. de Leeuw, Susanne P. Stoof, Karin van Dijk, Joost C. J. Bot and Eef J. Hendriks

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:739

    Content type: Case report

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  26. In accordance with international guidance for tuberculosis (TB) prevention, the Tanzanian Ministry of Health recommends isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for children aged 12 months and older who are living w...

    Authors: Olivia F. Hunter, Furaha Kyesi, Amrit Kaur Ahluwalia, Zeinabou Niamé Daffé, Patricia Munseri, C. Fordham von Reyn and Lisa V. Adams

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:738

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:784

  27. Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV), which is a concern in many countries, is the leading cause of liver cancer around the world. Since Taiwan launched its national health insurance system in 1995, it has managed ...

    Authors: Wei Li, Te-Sheng Chang, Shu-Zhi Chang, Ching-Hwa Chen and Mei-Yen Chen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:737

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  28. Blood transfusion is associated with potential risks of transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs). Different strategies are needed to monitor blood safety and screen the donors’ efficacy, such as evaluation of...

    Authors: Azadeh Omidkhoda, Bahman Razi, Ali Arabkhazaeli and Sedigheh Amini Kafi-Abad

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:736

    Content type: Research article

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  29. The pandemic of COVID-19 has occurred close on the heels of a global resurgence of measles. In 2019, an unprecedented epidemic of measles affected Samoa, requiring a state of emergency to be declared. Measles ...

    Authors: Chandini Raina MacIntyre, Valentina Costantino and David J. Heslop

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:735

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  30. HIV continues to be the main determinant morbidity with high mortality rates in Sub-Saharan Africa, with a high number of patients being late presenters with advanced HIV. Clinical management of advanced HIV p...

    Authors: F. Mangana, L. D. Massaquoi, R. Moudachirou, R. Harrison, T. Kaluangila, G. Mucinya, N. Ntabugi, G. Van Cutsem, R. Burton and P. Isaakidis

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:734

    Content type: Research article

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  31. The morbidity and mortality in community-acquired bacterial meningitis (CABM) remain substantial, and the etiology, clinical characteristics, treatment outcomes and predictors of poor prognosis must be assesse...

    Authors: E. Matulyte, S. Kiveryte, R. Paulauskiene, E. Liukpetryte, R. Vaikutyte and R. Matulionyte

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:733

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Adolescent sexual debut and non-consensual sex have been linked to higher sexual risk and STI infection in adulthood among men who have sex with men (MSM) in high-income countries. This study aimed to examine ...

    Authors: Weiming Tang, Yehua Wang, Wenting Huang, Dan Wu, Fan Yang, Yongshi Xu, Jason J. Ong, Hongyun Fu, Bin Yang, Cheng Wang, Wei Ma, Chongyi Wei and Joseph D. Tucker

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:732

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  33. The specific clinical feature of tetanus is whole body muscle spasms. These spasms are intensely painful and sometime lead to some injuries. Vertebral fractures have been reported as a common complication of t...

    Authors: Hiroki Nagasawa, Ken-ichi Muramatsu, Ikuto Takeuchi, Yoshihiro Kushida, Kei Jitsuiki, Jun Shitara, Hiromichi Ohsaka, Kazuhiko Omori, Yasumasa Oode and Youichi Yanagawa

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:731

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  34. The incidence of Lyme disease (LD) in North America has increased substantially in the past two decades. Concomitant with the increased incidence of infection has been an enhancement in the recognition of LD c...

    Authors: Faith Myers, Pooja E. Mishra, Daniel Cortez and Mark R. Schleiss

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:730

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  35. This study describes the disease burden, clinical characteristics, antibiotic management, impact of multidrug resistance and outcome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bloodstream infection (PABSI) among children admitted...

    Authors: Joycelyn Assimeng Dame, Natalie Beylis, James Nuttall and Brian Eley

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:729

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  36. Viral load (VL) testing is the gold-standard approach for monitoring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment success and virologic failure, but uptake is suboptimal in resource-limited and rural settings....

    Authors: Rita Nakalega, Nelson Mukiza, George Kiwanuka, Ronald Makanga-Kakumba, Robert Menge, Hajira Kataike, Joel Maena, Carolyne Akello, Patience Atuhaire, Flavia Matovu-Kiweewa, Cynthia Ndikuno-Kuteesa, Henry Debem and Andrew Mujugira

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:727

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Ivermectin is an excellent microfilaricide against Onchocerca volvulus. However, in some regions, long term use of ivermectin has resulted in sub-optimal responses to the treatment. More data to properly document...

    Authors: Raphael Awah Abong, Glory N. Amambo, Patrick W. Chounna Ndongmo, Abdel Jelil Njouendou, Ritter Manuel, Amuam Andrew Beng, Mathias Eyong Esum, Kebede Deribe, Jerome Fru-Cho, Fanny F. Fombad, Theobald Mue Nji, Peter Ivo Enyong, Catherine B. Poole, Kenneth Pfarr, Achim Hoerauf, Clotilde K. S. Carlow…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:726

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  38. Commencing lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) immediately following HIV diagnosis (Option B+), has greatly improved maternal-infant health. Thus, large and increasing numbers of HIV-infected women are on AR...

    Authors: Kerina Duri, Felicity Z. Gumbo, Privilege T. Munjoma, Precious Chandiwana, Kudakwashe Mhandire, Asaph Ziruma, Andrew Macpherson, Simbarashe Rusakaniko, Exnevia Gomo, Benjamin Misselwitz and Lovemore Ronald Mazengera

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:725

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  39. Spinal neuroschistosomiasis (SN) is one of the most severe clinical presentations of schistosomiasis infection and an ectopic form of the disease caused by any species of Schistosoma. In Brazil, all cases of this...

    Authors: Ana Lúcia Coutinho Domingues, Constança Simões Barbosa, Thiago Frederico Andrade Agt, Andréia Braga Mota, Clélia Maria Ribeiro Franco, Edmundo Pessoa Lopes, Rodrigo Loyo and Elainne Christine Souza Gomes

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:724

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  40. The global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection is ongoing and associated with high mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous injection of...

    Authors: Bo Wang, Diandian Li, Tao Liu, Haohua Wang, Fengming Luo and Yanbin Liu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:723

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Ross River virus (RRV) is responsible for the most common vector-borne disease of humans reported in Australia. The virus circulates in enzootic cycles between multiple species of mosquitoes, wildlife reservoi...

    Authors: Amanda K. Murphy, Julie A. Clennon, Gonzalo Vazquez-Prokopec, Cassie C. Jansen, Francesca D. Frentiu, Louise M. Hafner, Wenbiao Hu and Gregor J. Devine

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:722

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  42. Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) is a facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen which can invade different mammalian cells and reach to the central nervous system (CNS), leading to meningoencephalitis...

    Authors: Zi-Wei Lan, Min-Jia Xiao, Yuan-lin Guan, Ya-Jing Zhan and Xiang-Qi Tang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:721

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  43. Children living with sputum smear-positive adult tuberculosis (TB) patients are vulnerable to acquire tubercular infection. Contact tracing is an important strategy to control tubercular infection in the commu...

    Authors: Geetika Srivastava, M. M. A. Faridi and Shiv Sagar Gupta

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:720

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  44. A healthy 25-year-old woman developed COVID-19 disease with clinical characteristics resembling Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C), a rare form of COVID-19 described primarily in children un...

    Authors: Aaron D. Kofman, Emma K. Sizemore, Joshua F. Detelich, Benjamin Albrecht and Anne L. Piantadosi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:716

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  45. Women are under-represented in many mid-career infectious diseases research fellowships, including a TDR fellowship for low- and middle-income country (LMIC) researchers. TDR solicited creative ideas as part o...

    Authors: Ewen Liu, Juliet Iwelunmor, Grace Gabagaya, Helen Anyasi, Alejandra Leyton, Karen A. Goraleski, Shufang Wei, Mariam Otmani del Barrio, Atinuke Olaleye, Pascal Launois and Joseph D. Tucker

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:715

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  46. The clinical features, course and outcome of hantavirus infection is highly variable. Symptoms of the central nervous system may occur, but often present atypically and diagnostically challenging. Even though ...

    Authors: Sebastian Schwab, Simon Lissmann, Niklas Schäfer, Alexander Isaak, Dietrich Klingmüller, Ulrike Attenberger, Anna M. Eis-Hübinger, Jörg Hofmann, Christian P. Strassburg and Philipp Lutz

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:713

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  47. Mycobacterium bovis could infect patients with immunodeficiency or immunosuppressive conditions via Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination. Tuberculosis-related hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is reported, but ...

    Authors: Buyun Shi, Ming Chen, Zhi Xia, Shuna Xiao, Wen Tang, Chenguang Qin, Ying Cheng, Tao Huang, Chengjiao Huang, Yong Li and Hui Xu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:711

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  48. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Zengxian Yu, Fang Zhu, Xinghe Tao, Lu Zhang, Suliu Wu, Chunfu Dong, Yeqing Dong, Ge Chen, Xinyang Zhou, Yinfei Fang and Kechen Xu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:709

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:687

  49. Intravesical administration of Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) has proven useful for treatment and prevention of recurrence of superficial bladder cancer and in situ carcinoma. However, fatal side effects such ...

    Authors: Gen Shimizu, Ryota Amano, Itaru Nakamura, Akane Wada, Masanobu Kitagawa and Shuta Toru

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:708

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

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