Indiscriminate and widespread use of antibiotics has resulted in emergence of many antibiotic-resistant organisms. Antibiotic administration during pregnancy is mostly avoided, unless there is compelling medical condition. We hypothesized that the uropathogens isolated from pregnant women would be more susceptible to antibiotics compared to those isolated from nonpregnant women, thus will be helpful in formulating separate empiric guideline for pregnant women based on the resistance pattern.
This was a prospective cross-sectional study conducted over a period of 2 years in which females with the clinical diagnosis of either cystitis or asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy were included from the community settings. Uropathogen species and their antimicrobial resistance pattern were compared between the pregnant and nonpregnant groups. After accounting for centre-to-centre variation and adjusting for age and socio-economic status, the adjusted odds ratio for antibiotic resistance was calculated and compared between pregnant and nonpregnant women using logistic regression analysis.
A total of 1758 women (pregnant: 43.3%; nonpregnant: 56.6%) were screened in the study over a period of 2 years, out of which 9.3% (163/1758) were having significant bacteriuria. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the two commonest uropathogen in both the groups; their prevalence being 83.6% in pregnant women and 85.2% in nonpregnant women, respectively. Resistance against ampicillin, cefixime, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid were found significantly lower in the pregnant women compared to nonpregnant. After adjusting the age and socio-economic status accounting for centre-to-centre variation, the odds of resistance for cefixime, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and co-trimoxazole were found lower and statistically significant among the pregnant women group.
The antimicrobial resistance was significantly higher among the community-dwelling nonpregnant women compared to pregnant women in case of few antibiotics. The study highlighted the need of building local antibiogram that could help to initiate the empirical treatment and thus prevent emergence of antimicrobial resistance.